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Rowing - Specific Scripts / Technique

4 Principles for an Effective Stroke in Watersport / 4 Thesis for an Efficient Rowing Technique / Rowing Technique / Sliding Forwards / Making typical rowing-mistakes visible on a C-II / Slide Control / Biomechanics 1/ Biomechanics 2 / The Physics and Physiology of Rowing Faster / Pulling Too Hard and Inefficient / Beginners Rowing / Technical Workouts / How to Produce a Good Rowing Video / Checklist for Rowing-Videos / Catalog of Common Mistakes

Catalog of Mistakes 錯誤一覽表 -

To see, analyse and intervene 觀察,分析,改善

Catch 提槳 ( 1-5 )

Drive 拉槳 ( 6-14 )

Finish 拉槳結束 ( 15-19 )

Recovery 回槳 ( 20-24 )

 

The Catch 入水 / 提槳

1. Not enough reach forward 上體坐的太直

Effect 影響

Way in the water too short 在水中時間太短
No economic stroke and bladework 槳葉作功及划槳不合
Not enough run 槳葉出水到入水船型的距離不足

Causes 始因

Wrong position of the stretcher 錯誤的伸展姿勢
Body too upright 身體太直
Body stays too long in the finish-position after the release 身體在放鬆之後,維持太久的拉槳推水的姿勢

Correction 矯正

• 1 – 3: Demonstrating and explaining the correct movements out of the movement imagination of the coach ( concerns all following mistakes ! ) 1-3 教練需圖示並解釋正確的動作,並包涵所有的錯誤
• 1: The adjustments of the boat has to be all right ( concerns all following mistakes in trimming ! ). 船的調整要完備,需考慮到所有的小修整
• 2 / 3: One stroke rowing out of the catch position, after the release rest in the 90 degree-position, repeat several times, then rowing with counting ( catch out of the recovery, clean extraction with exaggeration of the fast hands over the knees, rest there, balance, beginning to slide after counting and then catch ). Rowing with fixed seat and extreme long reach forward, arm natural stretched, normal head position.

 

2. Extreme long reach forward   相當長的向前向外伸展

Effect 影響

Leads to missing relaxation of the body between stretcher and inboardpart of the oar ( „leg kick alone only“ ). 造成伸展器和槳葉內柄之間身體的放鬆消失
Body gets a too low position in the boat ( diving ), what can result in more bouncing of the boat. 身體在船上的姿勢太低(     ),會倒致船身更多的反彈

Causes 始因

• 1. Jerky stopping of the slideseat before the catch 入水前滑座停止不穩
• 2. Wrong position of the stretcher 伸展器位置錯誤
• 3. Knees wide open at the catch 入水時膝蓋太開

Correction 矯正

• 1: Rowing with counting, focus on slowslide and quickly catching the water out of the recovery. 邊划邊數,專注在慢慢滑軌,然後回樂,快速入水。
• 3: Half slide rowing with low stroke frequence, slowly increasing onto fullslide, while focusing on closed knees.
低槳頻數,半滑軌的划船。,在注意你和攏的膝時,慢慢增加至全軌。

 

3. Too much or too early bended arms  拉槳時手臂太早彎曲

Effect 影響

stroke too short at the catch 入水時划槳太短
Blade dives too deep after the catch 入水後槳葉沉的太深
Arm can not hold the loaded pressure in the middle-part of the stroke 划槳至一半時,手臂無法承受力量
Body-action begins too late, and tendency to kick only with the leg 身體的動作開始的太慢,而有只用腳的傾向
No efficient use of power in the drive 蹬腿時力氣不足

Causes 始因

• 1. Balance problems 平衡問題
• 2. Cramped use of the arms at the catch 入水時手臂太窄

Correction 矯正

• 1: Balance workouts: 平衡運動
- out of the layback with fixed seat fast hands – balance體後仰,座椅固定,雙手快划—平衡
- out of the layback fast hands and beginning to slide 上體後仰,雙手快划,並開始滑軌
- out of the layback fast hands, beginning to slide and 1 stroke 上體後仰,雙手快划,開始滑軌且划一個槳
- rowing with counting, focus on the pause 邊划邊數,注意停頓

• 2: Fixed seat, let the oar drift through the drive with natural bended arms at the beginning of the stroke and correct bodywork, slowly increasing power and slide. 固定座椅,蹬腿時讓槳浮漂在水上,划槳開始時,水臂則自然的彎曲然後矯正身體姿勢,慢慢的增加力量及滑軌。

 

4. Hands too low at the catch (skying ) 提槳時手下壓(揚槳)

Effect 影響

Missing water 失水
Too short stroke at the catch 入水時划船太短
Blades dive too deep 划葉沉太深
Discreasing driveway and run 蹬腿及船速下降

Causes 始因

Balance problems 平衡問題
Cramped shoulder action 肩膀動作太窄
( not enough mobility in the shoulder joint at the catch / 入水時肩關節動作不夠)
Wrong adjustment of the boat 船調整錯誤

Correction 矯正

• 1: see balance workouts at picture 1 參看圖片一的平衡運動
• 2: special gymnastics toget more mobility into the shoulder joints 做些特殊的體操讓肩關節活動增多
• 1 / 2: a) rowing with fixed seat in slow motion without power and only one oar, leading the grip, without increasing the space between water and blade after squaring, beginning the stroke while dropping the blade into the water; b) as above, but with both blades, increasing movements and power; c) as in b, dropping of the oars and drive fuse to one motion; d) as in c, sliding , , slide increasing until full slide. a.固定座椅,慢動作划槳,不要用太多力量,且只有用一隻槳。,槳轉正之後,不要增加水和葉面之間的空間。當槳放掉 到水裡時,開始划槳。b.同上。但用兩槳,並增加動作和力量。

 

5. Lifting the hands too high after the catch 入水後手提的太高

Effect 影響

Blades dives too deep at and after the catch (during drive-accelleration) 在拉槳加速的過程中或是入水之後,槳葉沉的太深
Catch too hard 入水太用力
Vertical and no horizontal pulling-direction 垂直而無平行的拉槳方向
Leads to not full squared blades 沒有完成轉變至正槳

Causes 始因

Cramped shoulder-arm-work 肩部及手臂運動太窄
Wrong coordination of the movements 動作錯誤的協調
Wrong adjustment of the boat 錯誤的調船

Correction 矯正

Rowing a number of strokes without power, hands are only lying on the grips and the oars areonly drifting through the water 大量划槳但不用力量,手只放在握槳處,而槳則是漂浮在水面上
Fixed seat in the catch position: natural stretched arms, only squaring of the blades while only using the wrist joint, lower arms and the back of the hands has to build one line 將座椅調整在入水的位置上。自己的張開水臂,只有在轉至正槳的時候才用到腕關節,放低手臂而手背則要形成一 直線
Rowing with squared blades, , , slide to full slide 以正槳划,1/4,.1/2.3/4慢慢滑至全軌。
Fixed seat in the catch position: dropping the blades out of short distance from the water, immediately beginning of the drive while the arms are naturally stretched and the body I well connected; the same workout with , , and full slide and normal work of the arms 將座椅調至入水的位置上。短距離後,將槳從水上放開,立即開始拉槳,而手臂則是自然的張開與身體協調。一樣從1 /4,1/2,3/4慢慢滑至全槳,而手臂也自然運動。

 

The Drive 拉槳

6. Shooting out 突然拉槳

Effect 影響

Drive-reduction 減少拉槳
Leads to not enough layback and extremly exaggerated bodywork at the finish 倒致不足的上體後仰,以及拉槳推水時太過的身體運動
Uneffective power-connection caused by a lack of coordination of the body-part-movements. 身體部份動作缺乏協調造成的無益能量連接

Causes 始因

Lack of tension of the body between stretcher and grips 身體在伸展器和握柄之間缺乏緊崩
2. Extreme long reach forward 向外向前伸展過長
3. Too much or too early bended arms 手臂太早彎或彎太多
4. Too weak body muscles 身體肌太弱
5. Balance problems 平衡問題

Correction 矯正

changing the stretcher position to the bow 調整伸展器和般之間的角度
rowing with fixed seat and stretched arms, focus on the bodywork 固定座椅,伸展手臂,並專注在身體運動上
fullslide rowing, focus on the bodywork without using legpower 全軌划行,專注在身體運動上,不要使用腳力
4: increasing the number of body workouts during the normal weight – practice, intensive body workouts 在普通的重量下,增加運動訓練量---練習,加強身體訓練
5: five strokes rowing, stop and pause over the knees, 30 sec rest, balance, rowing with counting, focus on the balance ( do not loose the tension in the legs during the recovery ) 槳一划,停止並在過膝處暫停,30秒休息,平衡,邊划邊數,專注在平衡上。在回槳時不要失掉腳的緊繃力。

 

7. Bodywork too early, lifting the body at the catch  身體動的太早,而在作水時,將身體提高

Effect 影響

Lack of run 缺乏速度
Uneffective power tranfer caused by a lack of coordination of leg-, arm- and body-forces, lack of using the conditional potencial of the leg muscles
缺乏腿,手臂及身體力量的協調以及缺乏適度發揮腿部肌肉潛力,而造 成無效的力量轉換
Leads to an release mistake at the finish, ( the body moves towards the grips ) 造成推水時,放掉的錯誤。身體往握柄處移動

Causes 始因

The rower uses the body to lift the hands and catches the water by opening the body angle 划手用身體來提高手並將身體的角度張開入水
2. The head moves to the neck to apply power 頭往頸子的方向去以施力

Correction 矯正

encouraging of using leg stroke dynamical out of the catch, 1stroke up to 5 strokes 鼓勵在入水時,用蹬腿的力量,從1-5個槳
rowing with counting, focus on getting the body quick out of the layback to a reach forward position, without sliding, pause and following recovery with exaggerated reach forward position up to the catch 邊划邊數專注在將上體後仰的現象中快速抽回,以達向外向前伸展的姿勢,不要滑軌,暫停,然後隨著回槳大幅度回 到入水的姿勢
out of an extreme long reach forward 1 stroke, stop, new stroke out of an extreme long reach forward 極跨張的前向前外伸展划一槳,停止,再一個新的誇張向前向外伸展。

 

8. Missing armstroke in the middlephase of the drive 拉槳到一伴時,失掉了手臂划力

Effect 影響

Armstroke too hard at the finish 手臂在推水時太用力
Lack of shoulder work at the finish 推水時沒有用到肩膀
Dancing of the blades in the water 槳在水中搖晃
Bad coordination of power 缺乏速度
Lack of run 肩部及手臂太窄
Cramped arm- and shoulder muscles

Causes 始因

1. Overstetched arms in the first part of the drive 拉槳的第一步中手臂太過舒展
2. Too weak arm- and shoulder muscles 肩部及手臂太弱

Correction 矯正

1 / 2: rowing wih fixed seat, catching the water with little bit bended arms, sliding , , up to full slide,after this focus on natural stretched arms 固定座椅,入水時,手微彎,從1/4,槳,1/2槳.3/4 槳到全槳,之後便著重在手臂自然伸展
1: rowing with correct motion but without power, inreasing the power step by step 以正確的姿態划船但不要用力,一步一步的慢慢增加
strengthen of arm- and shoulder muscles 肩部及手臂的力量加強

 

9. Use of the arms too early in the middlephase of the drive 拉槳至一半時,手臂的使用太早

Effect 影響

Causes problems at the finish 推水時會有問題
Drive-reduction 拉槳減小
Causes cramped arm muscles 造成手臂肌肉緊縮
Bad coordination of power 力量錯誤協調

Causes 始因

Catch with too early bended arms 入水時太早彎手臂

Correction 矯正

See workouts at picture 3 參看圖三

 

10. lifting the shoulder in the middlephase of the drive 拉槳至一半時肩膀上提

Effect 影響

cramped arm- and shoulder muscles 肩部及手臂太窄
diving of the blades, none-horizontal driveway / way of the hands 槳葉下沉,手的動作方向沒有平行
lack of layback and moving the body towards the oars at the finish 缺乏上體後仰以及在拉水時身體往槳的方向傾
discreasing the finish 拉水時衰退

Causes 始因

1. Too strong armpull with cramped shoulders 肩膀太窄而手臂拉力太強
2. Lack of tension in the backmuscles 缺乏背肌緊繃力
3. Wrong position of the head, eyes are looking to the stretcher and not over the stern 頭部位置錯誤,眼睛方向是伸展器而不是船尾
4. Wrong adjustment of the boat 船調整錯誤

Correction 矯正

1: showing and watching how the blade drifts through the water without power, watching the inboardpart of the oars, then with fixed seat and minimum power stroking with oneoar, then the other, then both oars; no slide, , , tofull slide, increasing the power step by step; rowing with fixed seat and without power, arms natural stretched and shoulder relaxed, encourage horizontal driveway; increasing way of the slide • 觀察槳葉在沒有力量推動下是如何浮在水上的,觀看槳的內柄,然後固定座椅,以最小的力量划一隻槳,之後再划另 一隻槳,再後雙槳一起划,先不滑軌,接著1/4,1/2,3/4槳慢慢滑至全軌,並一步一步增加力量。在固定座椅上划船且不 用力,手臂自然的伸展,肩膀方鬆,加強水平的划行方向以及滑軌方式
2: rowing with fixed seat and stretched arms as well as an extreme long reach forward, focus on the bodywork ( back-muscles ) during the pullingphase 固定座椅並伸展手臂,以及大幅向外向前伸展,專注在身體的運動,在拉槳階段,尤其注意背肌。
• 3: encourage the rower to row a number of strokes while viewing over the stern (special point ); done well, increasing the number of strokes step by step 鼓勵划手在看著船尾時,多划幾槳。做的好的話,一步一步增加划槳數。

 

11. Uneven leg-drive 不平穩的蹬腿

Effect 影響

Dancing of the blades 槳葉搖晃
Uneven pressure loading at the blade 槳葉承受不平均的壓力
• Drive-reduction 拉槳減弱

Causes 始因

1. Uneven power application in the hips- and leg-muscles 臀部及腿部肌肉力量不平均利用
• 2. Bodywork too early in the first part of the pullingphase 拉槳階段的第一階身體運動太早

Correction 矯正

1 / 2: (see also workouts at picture 7 ): 參看圖片七
rowing with , increasing the slideway over and up to full slide, focus on dynamic leg-drive
先划1/4滑軌,再增加至1/2,3/4,至全槳,注意蹬腿的爆發力
encourage the rower to row one stroke with dynamic leg-drive, increasing the number of strokes up to 5; encourage exaggerated strong pulling 鼓勵划手先划一槳,並用強而有力的蹬腿,再增加划槳數至5槳。 並鼓勵拉槳時用誇大的力量
rowing with counting, concentration on the dynamic leg-drive 邊數邊划,注意蹬腿是否強而有力

 

12. The stroke stops too early, before the finish  划槳在推水前太早收

Effect 影響

No clean extraction 沒有簡潔的收縮
Missing finish 失掉推水
Uneffective stroke and blade-work 無效的划槳及槳葉作用
Drive-reduction 拉槳降低

Causes 始因

1. Lack of shoulder-work 缺乏肩膀運動
2. Feathering during the pullingphase 拉槳時就出水轉槳
3. Finishing the stroke before reaching the body 在身體伸出去前就推水
4. Pulling the grips down to the thigh bone 將握柄壓下至大腿處
5. Catching a crab 槳葉吃水
6. Too slow movements of the hands in a team-boat, can result in a too early finish of the stroke to keep the rhythm 在整個船隊上,手的動作太慢,為了跟上節奏而造成划槳太早推水 。

Correction矯正

1: rowing with fixed seat and fixed layback, exercise the pullingphase, pulling the grips close to the lower costal arch / rib ( close enough to reach the body with thumb ) 划船時固定住座椅及上體維持後仰,練習拉槳,練習將握柄拉近至肋骨最下面,離身體約1/2姆指那麼近
3: layback, blade full covered, thumbs are touching the lower costal arch, exercise the clean extraction without drive, then extraction and fast hands over the knees without slide,then rwing with fixed seat without power, sliding , up to full stroke, focus on clean extraction; rowing with squared blades 上體後仰,槳葉全部入水,姆指接觸肋骨最下方的拱形處,練習簡潔的收縮而不拉槳,之後收縮並快槳過膝,但不滑軌, 接著固定座椅滑划,不要用力,滑軌1/2,3/4至全軌,著重在簡潔的收縮,以正槳划。
3 / 4: layback position, grips thumb-wide from the lower costal arch, rowing always only one single stroke and always out of the layback; concentration on the swimming-position of the blade in the water and the thumb at the lower costal arch 上體後仰,姆指從肋骨最下方開始轉,划船時,一定只用一槳且維持上體後仰的姿勢。注意槳葉在水中滑動的姿勢,以 及在肋骨下方處時的姆指。
5: layback: a) blades full covered; extraction, recovery without slide over the knees, airstroke, stop, new cycle; b) rowing with fixed seat and squared blades, increasing the stroke-rate up to 40 – 50 ; c) rowing with counting     上體後仰a.槳葉完全沉入水中,收縮,回槳時滑軌不過膝,在水面上劃槳,停止,再一次b)固定座椅,轉至正槳,增加槳頻 高至40-50  c)邊划邊數
6: a) rowing with counting, exaggerated extraction and fast hands; b) exercise the start-strokes 1. – 4. ; c) stroke-spurts, increasing of the stroke-frequence included in endurance practice 邊划邊數,誇大收縮以及手的速度加快  b)練習起槳1-4 c) 划槳衝刺, 增加槳頻,包括耐力練習

 

13. Too hard use of the upper body at the finish – jerky work of the upper body 推水時上身太用力—上身急拉

Effect 影響

Upper body moves towards the grips at the finish 推水時身體往上身傾
Occuring of negative forces 產生反向力量
Drive-reduction 蹬腿

Causes 始因

1. Front- and middle-part of the stroke too weak 划槳的前部及中間太弱
2. Too weak body connection in the front- and middle-part of the stroke 划槳的前部及中間身體連接太弱

Correction 連接

see workouts at the pictures 1, 6, 17 參看圖1,6,17

 

14. Side-swinging of the body 身體左右搖晃

Effect 影響

inconsistency in the stroke connection 槳的連接不協調
uneven bladework on port- and starbord side 紅槳和綠槳槳葉作功不平衡

Causes 始因

1. Wrong adjustment of the boat 船的調整錯誤
2. Different power applying and catch- or/and finish-angle on port- and starbord 入水的力量用的不同或是紅綠槳推水的角度不同
3. Wrong position of the head 頭的位置錯誤

Correction 矯正

2: a) the hand on the side where the mistake is expected, grips on the oar closer to the oarlock; b) rowing with blades on the water and fixed seat, increasing the slide-way to full size; c) marking catch-angle of both oars on the outboard of the boat a)發生錯誤那邊,用手將槳往槳鎖的方向靠 b)划船時,槳葉漂於水面,慢慢增加滑軌至全軌 c)在船上標出兩槳外柄的入水角度
2 / 3: fixed seat, normal ( straight ) head position: letting the blades through the water to the body, step by step increasing slide-way and power to the finish 固定座椅,正常垂直的頭部位置,將槳葉慢慢滑過水中,一步一步增加滑軌量以及推水時的力量

 

 The Finish

15. Not enough layback 上體後仰不足

Effect 影響

lack of stroke-size 缺乏划槳估算
no effective power-supply during the drive 划槳時沒有效率的用力

Causes 始因

1. No use of shoulder- and torso 沒有用到身體和肩膀

Correction 矯正

rowing with fixed seat, at the beginning with normal layback; exercise of single strokes, after this by focussing on the normal layback, steady exercising, then with slow-slide use of the full slide 固定座椅,一開始時維持正常的上體後仰,練習單槳。之後便專住在自然的上體後仰,穩定的練習,並慢慢的從小部分 滑軌至全軌。

 

16. Extreme layback 上體後仰過多

Effect 影響

leads to jerky slide-begin 造成滑軌時急拉
more bouncing of the boat 船的反彈更大
discreases the inboard accelleration 內部加速減少
unfavourable pressure at the blade 槳葉不平均的力量
release is getting more difficult 放鬆變得更難

Causes 始因

1. Too much emphasis on the finish, while catch and middle-drive are too weak 在入水及划槳太弱時, 卻太強調推水
2. Wrong position of the stretcher ( oars too far from the body ) , enables too much layback 伸展器的位置錯誤,槳離身體太遠,而造成太多的上體後仰

Correction 矯正

exercise of the pulling-phase while trying to emphase more on catch and middle-part of the drive 試著著重在入水及划槳的中段時,做拉槳練習
rowing with fixed seat, begin out of the layback, exercise of single strokes, then continued exercising , focus on normal layback, then while slow-sliding use of the full slide 固定座椅,從上體後仰開始,以單槳練習,再將重心放在正常的上體後仰,慢慢的用全軌滑軌

 

17. The trunk moves at the finish towards the oars  推水時身體往槳的方向移

Effect 影響

No complete stroke 划槳不完整
Force of the body goes in opposite direction 身體的力量往反方向走
Drive-reduction 蹬腿

Causes 始因

1. Missing body action 失掉身體動作
2. Head views to the stretcher 頭的位置超過伸展器
3. Too jerky body-work 身體動作太急
4. Too slow hand-recovery 手的回槳太慢
5. Spin in the upper body leaning too much 身體轉彎傾斜太 過
6. Too weak body muscles 身體肌肉太弱

Correction 矯正

1-6: rowing with fixed seat and in the layback fixed body, at the beginning without power, rower has to view to a special point beyond the stern, slowly increasing the power, exercising the normal body-work, step by step increasing the slideway to full slide 固定座椅,固定身體後仰姿勢,一開始不要用力。划手必需專注在船尾外的某一點上,慢慢的增加力量,做些普 遍的身體運動,一步一步增加滑軌數至全軌。
3: rowing with fixed seat and without power, no jerky movement of the body, emphasis on normal body-work in front- and middlepart of the stroke, step by step increasing the slideway to full slide •固定座椅,不要用力,身體動作不要太急,划槳的前部及中間時,重心在普通的身體運動上,一步一步增加滑軌至全軌
4: compare with workouts in picture 19 比較運動圖19
6: more body – workouts included in the normal power-practice 更多的身體力量練習運動

 

18. Elbows too wide, lack of shoulder-work 手肘太寬,缺乏肩膀運動

Effect 影響

Uneffective use of muscles 肌肉無效的應用
Uneffective finish 無效率的推水
Drive-reduction 蹬腿
Driveway too short

Causes 始因

1. Not enough shoulder-work 肩膀運動不夠
2. Not enough layback 上體後仰不足

Correction 矯正

1: fixed seat, body fixed in the layback, exercising shoulder-movements at the finish while the arms are bended, several times, thennormal use of the body, at the end rowing with full slide 固定座椅,維持在上體後仰的姿勢,當手臂彎曲時,在推水的時練習肩膀動作,幾次之後,正常的運作身體,在最後用全 軌。
2: compare with workouts in picture 15 比較運動圖示15

 

19. During the release “ fast hands“ too slow 放鬆時,手的移動太慢

Effect 影響

Body moves towards the oars 身體往槳的方向移
No clean extraction of the blades 無簡潔的槳葉收縮
Stopping of the boat-movement 船的動作停止

Causes 始因

1. Lack of draw at the finish, inboard-velocity too slow 推水時,沒有拉槳, 船內的速度太慢
2. Feathering in the water 在水中轉至正槳

Correction 矯正

Out of the layback, grips thumb-wide from the lower costal arch: exercising of one single stroke, stop, beginning the new stroke out of the layback 上體後仰,在肋骨最下方握住槳,姆指張開開始,只動一隻槳,停止,維持上體後仰, 再做一次划槳
Layback, blades full covered: exercising the extraction without feathering, then extraction without sliding but with recovery to the knees, then rowing with fixed seat, withoutpower-supply and feathering, sliding , to full slide 上體後仰,槳葉完全在水中,先練習沒有轉槳的出水收縮再練習沒有滑軌的收縮但回槳時有到膝蓋。再固定座椅划, 不用力也不轉槳,從1/4,1/2,3/4軌至全軌。
Rowing with squared blades 以正槳划
Rowing with fixed seat and squared, emphasis on the finish, increasing the stroke-rate up to 50-60 beats
固定座椅以正槳划,重心在推水,增加槳頻至50-60之間
Rowing with counting, emphasis on fast hands 邊數邊滑,強調手的快速動作
Exercising of starts; 1st. to 5th. stroke with maximum stroke-rate 起始的練習,第一槳至第五槳,以最大的槳頻數划

 

Sliding 滑軌

20. Jerky and too fast sliding / rushing 滑軌太急太快/太倉促

Effect 影響

Jerky stopping at the slide-end 滑軌最後太快停住
Pitching of the body before the catch 入水.前,身體往前傾
Discreasing the boat-speed with opposite directed forces 產生反方向的力量降低船速
Unfavourable ratio of strain and rest 拉力和休息之間的比例不平均

Causes 始因

1. Seat stays too long at the turning-point at the finish 推水轉點時座椅停留太長
2. Fast hands too slow 手速太慢
3. Too slow body-recovery out of the layback 身體從上體後仰回復的太慢
4. Drive too slow 蹬腿太慢

Correction 矯正

1: a) Rowing with fixed seat, fixed body at the layback and emphasis on fast hands;
b) the body follows direct after the hand-recovery;
c) rowing with counting, direct after the hand-recovery ~ 5 cm sliding, rest and balancing of the boat
a)固定座椅,將身體定在上體後仰,重心在手的快速動作 b)  身體動作緊接在手的回槳 c) 手的回槳後馬上邊划邊數,五公分滑軌,休息,平衡船
2/3: comparable correction as in picture 19 比照矯正的圖示19
4: Increasing the drive-velocity with low stroke-rate 以慢的槳頻增加船內速度

 

21. Unsteady, uneven guide of the inboards 船內操控不穩不平

Effect 影響

Balance problems 平衡問題
Problems in the team-combination 團隊合作之間的問題
Cramped arm- and shoulder  muscles 手嬖以及肩膀肌肉太窄

Causes 始因

1. The right hand follows the left hand during the draw to the body instead of left follows right 往身體方向拉槳時,,是右手手肘跟著左手,而不是左手跟著右手
2.The inboards are not on the same level 船內的水平線不同高度
3.Uneven draw of the inboards at the finish 推水拉槳時,船肉的力量不平均

Correction 矯正

Layback-poition, blades are lying on the water, with fixed seat recovery of the left hand, the right hand rests, air-stroke left, exercising the speed of the hand-recovery, the left hand recovers faster than the right; working with both hands and normal draw, sliding to full slideway 上體後仰,槳葉漂在水面上,固定住座以,以左手回槳,右手休息,左槳停在空中,練習水部回槳的速度,左手回槳的比 右手快。 再以兩隻手一起練,正常的拉槳,從1/2軌練習至全軌
Layback, reminding the rower to keep the right distances between the grips / inboards, exercising single strokes 上體後仰,提醒划手槳握柄處和船內之間正確的距離,以單槳練習
Rowing, correction with squared blade 划船時以正槳葉矯正
Changes of the stroke-rate from 20 to 10, then back to 20,repeating several times 槳頻變化從20-10然後再回到20,反覆數次

 

22. Jerky stopping of the slideseat before the catch 入水前滑軌座椅停的太急

Effect 影響

Pitching of the body at the catch 入水時身體往前衝
Bouncing 反彈
Discreasing the boat-speed with opposite directed forces 反向力量產生而降低船速

Causes 始因

1. Rushing on the slide 滑軌時太倉促

Correction 矯正

Comparable corrections as in picture 21 比照矯正圖21

 

23. Pitching of the body  身體往前傾

Effect 影響

Skying 抱空
Increasing the water-resistance 水的阻力增加
Discreasing the boat-speed 船速降低

Causes 始因

1. Too fast sliding and jerky stopping of the slideseat 滑軌太快,座椅停的太急
2. Wrong stretcher-position 錯誤的伸展器位置
3. Beginning to slide before the body has passed the upright position 身體還未從上體後仰的姿勢回復時,就開始滑軌

Correction 矯正

Extraction out of the layback, the body is following the hands, beginning to slide while the hands have reached the stretcher 上體後仰的收縮,身體跟著手走,當手達到了伸展器時,便開始滑軌
Workout as in picture 21, 24 運動圖21 24

 

24. Beginning to slide before the body has passed the upright position 身體還未從上體後仰的姿勢回復時,就開始滑軌

Effect 影響

Pitching of the body 身體往前傾
Lack of reach forward and too short front-stroke, because the shoulders do not pass the slideseat during the recovery 缺乏身體向前向外伸展,以及前槳太短。在回槳時,肩膀沒有越過滑軌椅 。

Causes 始因

1. Wrong sitting position on the seat 錯誤的坐姿
2. Body is not immediately following the hands after the extraction 收縮後,身體沒有馬上跟著手動作

Correction 矯正

Correct the sitting position, let the rower sit more on the upper legs 矯正坐姿。讓划手坐的時候,重心多在大腿處
Rowing with fixed seat and exaggerated use of the body 固定坐椅。並大量運用身體
Rowing with pause, the shoulders are in front of the seat during the pause, shorten the pause step by step
划船時,要停頓。停頓時,肩膀要在椅子前。一步一步慢慢短少停頓時間。

             Altenburg, K顤ner u. Schwanitz, Brockmann u. Reimers, Redgrave; translation: Joern Grosskopf / Lin Yong-Long, 1999/2003