Basics / Sport-scientific Scripts

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         Dominant Abilities 優越的能力

    Identification of your sport's profile and its requirements is crucial for the planning and programming of a detailed training program. All sports are described by their relation to four major characteristics:

    Coordination / 調和    Strength /力氣    Speed  / 速度      Endurance / 耐力

    It is essential to know how your particular sport relates to four major abilities and what form they take during performance in order to make proper decisions about training. Most sports dominant function is a combination of two, three or all four of these abilities. For example, sprints or jumps are power sports, which combine maximum strength and maximum speed.

    Rowing and kayaking, on the other hand, are muscular endurance sports, where endurance and strength combined are the dominant abilities.

    Many athletes and coaches treat these combinations as one characteristic and try to develop them together. A more effective way of training, which will lead to higher results is achieved if the components are first developed separately and then converted to needed combinations for the sport. For example, if the sport requires power development for the improvement of performance, during your annual cycle the strength aspect of it is initially developed starting with general and then maximum strength development, and then this strength is transformed to power.

    There are sports, where coordination and technique are not dominant and the final result depends on the development of speed, endurance, strength or combination of those three. A good example of this is cyclic sports like running, cycling, rowing, where endurance and speed are dominant abilities to achieve the necessary velocity, with strength playing a supportive role. Coordination is based on precise, efficient technique to be as fast as possible. There are some cyclic sports where complex coordination is not a dominant ability and technique will not win the competition, however, to possess an effective level of technique one must learn it as a kid.

    Table 3: Simplified examples of sports dominant abilities 
    For the better understanding of these aspects of different abilities let's take a simplified look at the basics of coordination, strength, speed and endurance. To precisely describe and categorize the concept of each individual characteristic is well beyond the frame of this script. However, this short outline should help you better understand the basic aspects of each ability. It should also help to shed light on your sport's categorization.



     Dominant Ability


     Achieve perfect form of complex skills


     Perfect coordination with highest level of precision with relatively high level of strength and speed

     Figure skating



     Achieve the highest velocity

     Precise coordination executed as fast as possible with speed and endurance


     Achieve the highest velocity

    Endurance, speed are dominant with strength as an influential factor, coordination based on precise as fast as



     Possible execution of X-C skiing

    Skills with intensities reaching limits

     Speed skating


     Achieve the highest level of strength and speed (power)

     Strength and speed


     Weight lifting


     Achieve the highest average speed

     Endurance and speed

     Games (soccer, basketball, football, a.s.o.

     Achieve the highest ability to execute complex skills in changing environment and in presence of opponent

     Coordination, speed, endurance and strength

    Fight sport (martial arts, wrestling, a.s.o. Tennis


    Achieve highest level of concentration under high level of stress with very low physical engagement


     Combined sports (decathlon, biathlon,  heptathlon, modern)

     Excel in all sports included

     Complex mixture of most abilities


                                                                                                                                         1999 Sport is Life