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Specific Scripts / Body-Workouts and Stretching

Important Rules For Body-Workouts / Charts of Stretching Workouts / Charts of Workouts, That Can Make You Sick / Example of a standized Warming-Program / Body-Workouts

Charts of workouts, that cause Injuries

Why do we need this „Chart of workouts, that cause injuries“?

During my work as coach I had many opportunities to watch over several years in many countries stretching, mobilizing and strengthening workouts. Most of the workouts are well known out of the past.

(20 years ago everybody was doing workouts like this).

Science has proved that a lot of them were useless; some of them are even dangerous for the spine. But in most Asian Countries these workouts are still popular and very common in sports, in school as well as in all kind of practice. All universities are still teaching this ‘traditional’ form of stretching to improve the body.

So this idea for this ‘Chart-list’ originates, which include the most common torture-workouts, should explain the problem or danger, that occurs and shows a better alternative workout.

Second part is a ‘Chart-list’ of stretching workout, which should give a few suggestions for a functional stretching.

„ Chart of workouts, that cause injuries “

Bad – Workouts / Overview

Flexibility of the spine
1. Head circling      
2. Trunk circling     
3. Spine stretching     
4. ‘Bridge’       
5. ‘Bird nest’        
6. Hanging the partner out    
7. Sitting spine stretching     
8. ‘Chucking wood’      
9. Diagonal body – back – stretching  
10. Body - stretching with partner    
11. Diagonal body – stretching    
 
Strengthening front – and back-muscles
12.  ‘Spring-knife’      
13.  Leg circle      
14.  Throwing straight legs to the ground  
15.  Sit-ups with fixed legs       
16.  Body – front waving     
17.  Workouts in straight body position with straight legs 
18.  Throwing balls out of the lying position  
 
Mobilization, Strengthening and Stretching of the extremities
19.  ‘Duck – walk’     
20.  ‘Kosaken – dance’     
21.  ‘Hurdle – seat’     
22.  Stretching of the upper – leg – muscles on a high desk
23.  Foot -tip  – walk     
24.  Arm – circle with too strong swing    
25.  Arm – walk    
 
1.) Charts of stretching workouts
 
1. Head circling 
> Aim: Mobilization of the cervical spine
Critic:
With uncontrolled and fast movements a heavy mechanical stress on joints, tendons and disk arises.
The cervical spine is not a ball joint!
 
 
 
> Target: Mobilization of the cervical spine
Alternative Workout:
Slow, controlled movements in comfortable region -Except back flexion!
    a) Diffract forwards
    b) Turning the head left and right
    c) Inclining the head left and right
 
2. Trunk circling
> Aim: Mobilization of trunk and hips
The whole spine in not prepared for uncontrolled, swinging rotation movements.
False - and overuse of the cervical spine.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Mobilization of the cervical spine
Alternative Workout:
Moving of the spine in functional form:
    a) Slowly rolling up and down of the spine
    b) Slowly inclining of the trunk to the left and right side without flat back
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.   Spine stretching
> Aim: Stretching of the back muscles. Mobilization of the cervical spine
 
 
 
 
 
 
Critic:
Overload on the thoracic ?and cervical spine, because the whole bodyweight is loaded on them.
Overstretching of the longitudinal tendon of the spine.
 
> Target: Stretching of the back muscles. Mobilization of the cervical spine
Alternative Workout:
“Package-sitting”, package in layback position or embryo position on the side.
 
 
 
 
 
4. ”Bridge”
> Aim: Maximizing of the mobility of the whole spine. Stretching of the front muscles.
Critic:
All workouts, aimed on over-mobility of the spine, are to be rejected, because of possible damages of the lumbar spine.
 
No alternative workout: Because over-mobility of the spine is not desired, there is no alternative!
 
 
 
5. “Birds nest”
> Aim: Stretching of the body-front-muscles 
Critic:
Non-functional enhancement of the natural flat back with possibility of an injury of the lumbar spine
 
 
 
> Target: stretching of the body-front-muscles
 
 
 
Tip:
Lying only comfortable painless.
A small pillow under the Lumbar spine-region ease this workout.
Alternative workout: Lying on the back, the arms beneath the head.
 
6. ”Hanging the partner out”
> Aim: Stretching of the body-front-muscles 
Critic:
Massive stress in the lumbar spine. An anti-tension occurs, that restrains a stretching, caused by the grip.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: stretching of the body-front-muscles  
Alternative workout:
Stretching of the body-front-muscles with the help of a partner.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Swinging spine stretching while sitting with long legs
> Aim: Stretching of the lower back-muscles and the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Critic:
Overload of the lumbar spine and the longitudinal tendon, less stretching of the posterior upper leg-muscles.
 
 
 
> Target: stretching of the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Alternative workout:
Functional stretching of the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Position: lying on the back.
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. “Chucking wood”
>  Aim: Stretching and mobilization of the lumbar spine and the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Critic:
Because of the heavy load for tendon, muscles and disk, every rapid movement in the spine should be avoided. Basically muscle stretching is not possible with rapid or springing exercises.
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Stretching and mobilization of the lumbar spine and the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Alternative workout:
ackage-seat?for stretching of the back muscles and the alternative workout in 22 for the stretching of the posterior upper leg-muscles.
 
 
 
9. Diagonal body-back-stretching
> Aim: Balance workout and stretching of the front-muscles
Critic:
Heavy strain in the area of the lumbar spine,
because saccadic movements into the flat back.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Stretching of the front-muscles
 
 
 
Alternative workout:
Lying on the back, the arms beneath the head.
 
10. Body - stretching with partner
> Aim: Stretching of the back-muscles and the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Critic:
Overload of the lumbar spine (compare workout 7). Also danger of uncontrolled tearing of the partner.
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Stretching of the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Tip: One leg is lying on the shoulder of the partner. With careful moving forward of the shoulder, stretching of the whole backside of the upper leg.  
 
Alternative workout:
Stretching of upper leg-muscles with the help of a partner.
 
 
 
 
 
11. Diagonal body-stretching
> Aim: Stretching of the back-muscles and the posterior upper leg-muscles.
Critic:
Danger of an overuse of the spine, if this workout is done with too much swing,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Stretching of the back-muscles.
Alternative workout:
Standing on four ”feet”: “cat-hump”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.) strengthening front- and back-muscles
 
12. ”Spring knife”
> Aim: Strengthening of the front-muscles.
Critic:
Heavy load in the lumbar spine, especially if the front-muscles are weak. Hip-flexing muscles are working more than front-muscles.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the front-muscles.
Alternative workout:
Stepping the feet onto the floor, prevents the use of the hip-flexing muscles. This workout can be done statically as well as dynamically with slowly rolling up and down of the trunk.
 
 
 
13. Leg circle
> Aim: Strengthening of the front-muscles.
Critic:
Heavy load in the lumbar spine, because the long legs are tearing the spine into a flat back. (Especially, if the front-muscles are weak)
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the front-muscles.
Tip: Lying with the hip-area on the ground,
stepping the feet on the ground.
 
Alternative workout:
Special directed front-muscle workout, where the
hip-flexion muscles are excluded.
(See also workouts 12 + 15).
 
 
14. Pushing straightend legs to the ground
> Aim: Strengthening of the front-muscles.
Critic:
Overload in the lumbar spine, because mostly the swing
will be caught in the flat back.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the diagonal front-muscles.
Tip: The partners are lying vis-a-vis beneath each other and putting each other outside-hands together.
 
Alternative workout:
Strengthening of the diagonal front-muscles with the help of a partner.
 
 
15. Sit-ups with fixed legs
> Aim: Strengthening of the front-muscles.
Critic:
Priority on strengthening of the hip-flexion muscles. 
While tearing with the hands in the neck,
risk of torturing the cervical spine.
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the front-muscles.
Tip:
Rolling the trunk up until the shoulders lift-up from the ground,
while the hands are relaxed beside the body.
 
Alternative workout:
Functional front-muscle workouts, while the hip-flexion is excluded through putting the legs on the chest.
 
16. Body-front waving
> Aim: Strengthening of the back muscles.
Critic:
Possibility of damaging the lumbar spine.
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the back muscles.
 
 
 
 
Tip: A pillow under the stomach prevents from sinking of the lumbar spine into the flat back.
Alternative workout:
A.   Easy lifting of trunk and arms, the nose touches nearly the floor.
B.   Interacting diagonal lift of one leg and arm, while lying on the ground    
 
17. Workouts in straight body position with straight legs
> Aim: Strengthening of the front muscles and stretching of the posterior upper leg muscles.
Critic:
The weight and the long lift of the trunk produce
a heavy load in the lumbar spine.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the back muscles.
Alternative workout:
Bending the knees and with straight back,
to achieve a lower load in the lumbar area.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18.  Throwing balls out of the lying position  
> Aim: Strengthening of back-muscles and shoulder-muscles.
Critic:
With the lifting up of the trunk during the throw of the ball,
the athlete is tearing into a flat back
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the back-muscles
 
 
 
 
Alternative workout:
In the abdominal position lifting the trunk only a little bit, with the head viewing to the floor.
 
3.) Mobilization, strengthening and stretching of the extremities
 
19.  “Duck-walk”
> Aim: Strengthening of the leg-muscles
Critic:
Overload on the knee-wrists, especially in menisci and tendons.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the leg-muscles
Tip: All workouts out of a deep squat result in an overload on the knee-joints and should be avoided!
 
Alternative workout:
Controlled squats until reaching 90-grad-position of the knee-wrists, like down-hill-skiing pose or at the wall. The back is straight!
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20.  “Kosaken-dance”
> Aim: Strengthening of the leg-muscles
Critic:
Overload in the knee-joints, especially in menisci and tendons.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of the leg-muscles
Alternative workout:
Strengthening workouts in half squat
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. “Hurdle-seat”
> Aim: Mobilization of the hip-wrist and stretching of the upper-leg backside.
Critic:
Heavy torsion in the knee, with an overstretching of the
inside-tendon and an overload of the meniscus as well
as an overload of the lumbar spine.
 
 
> Target: stretching of the upper-leg backside.
 Tip: Hands behind the back, bend the leg
you are standing on; with straight back
move the ace backwards.
 
Alternative workout:
Stretching of the upper-leg muscles in a standing position.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22.  Stretching of the upper-leg-muscles on a high desk
> Aim: Stretching of the upper-leg muscles.
Critic:
Heavy load in the lumbar spine, caused by the bandy pose.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Stretching of the upper-leg muscles
Tip:
Hands behind the back, bend the leg you are standing on;
with straight back move the ace backwards.
 
Alternative workout:
Functional stretching of the upper-leg muscles on a small chest or bank.
 
 
 
 
 
 
23.  Walking on the Foot-Tips
> Aim: Strengthening and mobilizing of the feet
Critic:
Overload on the exterior tendons.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening and mobilizing of the feet
Alternative workout:
Useful workouts for the strengthening of the feet:
clawing, splaying and grasping of the toes.
 
 
 
 
24.  Arm-circle with too strong swing
> Aim: Mobilization of the shoulder joint
Critic:
Non-functional load in shoulder joint
and shoulder girdle. The protective reflex
hinders an optimal stretching of the muscles.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Mobilization of the shoulder joint
Alternative workout:
Controlled arm circling at the limit of the motion-amplitude
 and directed stretching of the shoulder and breast muscles.
( See “Charts of Stretching Workouts”)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25.  “Lorry” / Arm-walk
> Aim: Strengthening of shoulder and arm-muscles
Critic:
Without enough tension in the front-muscles, the body will hang into an intense flat back. Are the shoulder blades, as a matter of a lack of power, not enough stabilized, occurs a wrong- and so overload in whole shoulder girdle and lumbar spine.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
> Target: Strengthening of shoulder and arm-muscles
Tip:
The head remains in extended position to the spine and the hands are showing to the inside during the lift.
 
Alternative workout:
Body-lift out of the kneeing position.
Only if the body-muscles are strong enough, the lifts can be done with straight body.
     Verband f. Turnen u. Freizeit, HH / Joern Grosskopf, 1998