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     Supercompensation / 超機能調整

The Effects of Training

To effectively apply systematic increases in your program it is important to look at the effects of training. This should help you understand why and how to apply increases in your workout loads. The effects of training can fall to one of three categories:

1. Immediate effects of training - this describes effects immediately following the workout including fatigue and the beginning of the recovery process (see figure1). Evaluation of immediate effects of training is crucial in selecting the right intensity, volume, rest intervals and the method used. Information on the character and extent of the immediate effect helps with the overall structure of training cycles and the order of different individual exercises in the training session. For example, slight changes in the intensity of exercises or improperly chosen rest periods in interval workouts will overload a different metabolism than planned. As well, scheduling future exercises without paying attention to the effects of previous ones, may create an unplanned reaction of the body. For instance, the effects of anaerobic exercises with lactate acid accumulation will be intensified if preceded by speed exercises, but if they follow long distance aerobic work, the effects will be decreased.

2. Delayed effects of training - this describes effects on the processes of restoration, recovery and supercompensation (improvement) of work capacity after a single training session (see fig. 1). The delayed effects are expressed by synthesis of protein, restoration of fuel storages and increases in hormonal and enzymes activities. Related to recovery and its after effects on the ability to perform, full restoration of functions overloaded with a workout, if not followed by the next load, go through recovery and full recovery of stressed functions. Supercompensation improvement above the level prior to the load will occur. However, this state is not permanent and after a short time benefits disappear.

Figure 1. Effects of a single workout with optimum load

3. Cumulative effects of training - this describes effects of training which are the result of added immediate and delayed after-affects of many individual training sessions. To reach a cumulative effect, progressive increases in training load must be executed in the presence of delayed effects of the previous session. If there is too much rest between workouts the effects of the previous training session are lost. In such a situation the best possible result would be maintenance. You must start the next workout during recovery from previous one, before full recovery occurs and supercompensation is reached. Waiting for complete delayed effect to take place is only beneficial on occasion and in the peaking cycle, but is not desired in the gradual progressive training process. The controlling elements here are frequency and the rest time between training sessions. After you execute several training sessions, which start in presence of the effects from previous ones, you can add a rest session to allow the body to rebuilt and improve work capacity (Fig.2). This process is similar to metal working. When you are trying to mold the metal you keep it hot, cooling it only briefly as you mold the shape. The same holds true for the development of the athlete. They should only be rested enough to perform the proper functions needed to improve the area you are working on. In metal working if you hit the metal when it is too hot it may break. The same thing happens to the athlete. If you give them too much or too intensive a workload, without allowing them to rest, they will get sick, injured or overtrained. Once the metal is formed into its final design you cool it completely and it become a new shape. In the athlete, this is the process of peaking for the main race.

Figure 2. Cumulative Effect of multiple training sessions

In today's world of elite level and professional sports, serious athletes can not afford a training program where every workout starts after full rest from the previous workout. The complexity of this principle and its execution requires very careful and deliberate planning with periodical testing and observation of the effects of each individual workout, small and large training cycles and final results of the season. With the available information, there is no doubt that, to improve performance, the athlete must follow a training process of systematically and gradually raised loads, which periodically creates a state of overload. Overload is a prerequisite to progress and defines progressive increase of training needed to reach peak performance. Cumulative effects of training - this describes effects of training, which are the result of added immediate and delayed after-effects of many individual training sessions. To reach a cumulative effect, progressive increases in training load must be executed in the presence of delayed effects of the previous session. If there is too much rest between workouts the effects of the previous training session are lost. In such a situation the best possible result would be maintenance. You must start the next workout during recovery from previous one, before full recovery occurs and supercompensation is reached. Waiting for complete delayed effect to take place is only beneficial on occasion and in the peaking cycle, but is not desired in the gradual progressive training process. The controlling elements here are frequency and the rest time between training sessions. After you execute several training sessions, which start in presence of the effects from previous ones, you can add a rest session to allow the body to rebuilt and improve work capacity (Fig.2). This process is similar to metal working. When you are trying to mold the metal you keep it hot, cooling it only briefly as you mold the shape. The same holds true for the development of the athlete. They should only be rested enough to perform the proper functions needed to improve the area you are working on. In metal working if you hit the metal when it is too hot it may break. The same thing happens to the athlete. If you give them too much or too intensive a workload, without allowing them to rest, they will get sick, injured or overtrained. Once the metal is formed into its final design you cool it completely and it become a new shape. In the athlete, this is the process of peaking for the main race.                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Sport is Life 1999 / J.G.      5 February, 2000